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What is Vacuum Forming?

A sheet of plastic is heated to a melting point, stretched over a single-surface mould, and pressed against the mould by a vacuum. This method may be used to make permanent structures like highway signs and protective coverings out of plastic. Normally, draught angles are included in the mould design (a minimum of 3° is suggested) to make it easier to remove the produced plastic component from the mould.

What Are the Differences Between Vacuum, Thermo, and Pressure Forming?

Thermoforming is a manufacturing technique that involves heating a sheet of plastic to make it flexible, then shaping or contouring it using a mould and trimming it to produce a finished component or product. Thermoforming procedures are divided into two categories: vacuum forming and pressure forming. The quantity of moulds utilised is the primary distinction between pressure and vacuum forming.

The most basic kind of plastic thermoforming is vacuum forming, which utilises a single mould and vacuum pressure to achieve the required component shape. It’s perfect for components that just need to be perfectly shaped on one side, such food packaging or electronics.

What Is Vacuum Forming and How Does It Work?

The following is a step-by-step vacuum forming procedure:

1. Clamp: A sheet of plastic is clamped into position in an open frame.

2. Heat: A heat source softens the plastic sheet until it reaches the proper forming temperature and becomes flexible.

3. Vacuum: A framework holding a heated, flexible sheet of plastic is dropped over a mould and pushed into position by a vacuum on the mold’s opposite side. Tiny holes must be bored into crevices in female (or convex) moulds so that the vacuum can efficiently draw the thermoplastic sheet into the desired shape.

4. Cool: The plastic must cool once it has been moulded around/into the mould. Fans and/or cold mist are occasionally utilised to speed up this stage in the manufacturing cycle for bigger items.

5. Release: The plastic may be taken from the mould and freed from the framework after it has cooled.

6. Trim: Trim the extra material from the finished component, and the edges may need to be trimmed, sanded, or polished.

Vacuum forming is a fast procedure, with the heating and vacuuming stages lasting just a few minutes on average. However, cooling, cutting, and making moulds may take a lengthy time depending on the size and complexity of the components being produced.

The Benefits of Vacuum Forming

  1. Each item is made in a reasonable amount of time.
  2. Manufacturing expenses are low.
  3. Molding expenses are low (especially when using cost-effective materials like high-density foam)
  4. Shapes and sizes are usually constant from batch to batch, especially when the same mould is used many times.
  5. Mold forms and sizes are versatile and adjustable.
  6. Scale production up or down as required, and create new components as needed.
  7. Excess plastic may be recycled to make additional sheets for future use.
  8. Supports prototyping methods that are quick.

Vacuum Forming’s Disadvantages

  1. At any one moment, just one part or product may be manufactured (best for small-scale production)
  2. Additional expenditures or resources may be required to complete components.
  3. Additional expenditures or resources may be required to complete components.
  4. During vacuuming, thick plastic sheets may distort (the plastic has to be carefully stretched to prevent this)
  5. Because the amount of detail you can create with a mould is limited, designs must be basic.
  6. If the mould isn’t formed correctly, the end product or component will be faulty as well.
  7. Excess moisture may lead to the formation of undesirable bubbles.
  8. Mold debris may be seen on clear or light-colored components.

Vacuum Forming’s Most Common Uses

Transportation and Automobiles

Vacuum forming is used to make a variety of components and pieces for automobiles, buses, boats, and aircraft. Vacuum shaping is used to make anything from bumpers to floor mats and even truck beds in automobiles.

Vacuum forming enables vehicle makers to provide a wide range of colour and detail choices to customers, as well as allowing designers to try out new prototypes early in the development process.

Displays and Packaging

If you purchase a product that arrives packaged in plastic that matches the product’s design, it’s likely that the packaging was created using vacuum forming. Vacuum-formed packaging is used in razors, toothbrushes, gadgets, cosmetics, and cleaning goods.

Vacuum forming is also used to make marketing displays, point-of-purchase (POP) displays, and supermarket aisle end cap fixtures.


Vacuum forming is often used to make medical parts and components that need to be antimicrobial or resistant to pollutants.

Medical packaging, pharmaceutical trays in which tablets are packed, hospital bed components, and MRI and CT equipment external parts are all examples.


Many industrial crates and contoured containers for equipment are also made using vacuum forming.

Because industrial producers may employ a range of flame-retardant and UV-resistant materials, vacuum forming is an excellent production method for components that are mainly used outdoors or that may come into contact with a heat source. Vacuum forming is possible using fire-retardant UL 94 V-0 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and UV-filtering acrylic (PMMA), for example.

Goods for Consumers

Vacuum forming is used to make a wide range of consumer products. Vacuum forming may be used to make a variety of items, including children’s toys, travel equipment, and home decor.

Materials for Vacuum Forming: A Basic Overview

Vacuum shaping allows for the use of a wide range of thermoplastics. The following are some of the most frequently used plastics:

  1. ABS – ABS is extremely popular, comes in a wide range of colours and textures, as well as flame retardant grades (UL94-V0), and has a high impact resistance.
  2. PC – excellent impact resistance and strong temperature resistance
  3. HDPE – HDPE is a cost-effective material that is resistant to impact, chemicals, and low temperatures.
  4. TPO – long-lasting and impact-resistant, with a high-gloss finish
  5. HIPS – HPS is a low-cost material that comes in a range of colours and is simple to shape.
  6. PVC – flame retardant, comes in a variety of colours and patterns, and is stiff and impact resistant.

5 Simple Tips for the Design Process of Vacuum Forming

When developing your product for vacuum forming, keep in mind that all sections must have the same wall thickness, and holes and slots must be created as a subsequent operation.

  1. Injection moulding is much more suited to tight tolerances than vacuum forming.
  2. If at all feasible, make the spacing between pockets larger than 6 mm to avoid webbing.
  3. Allow a 5° to 10° draught angle on side walls to make it easier to remove the formings from the tool.
  4. Don’t create pockets that are deeper than their breadth, and avoid making slots that are too small to form correctly.
  5. Use broad (3 mm+) curves/radii and minimise abrupt corners to prevent formings from thinning/cracking excessively.
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