At the 1967 International Plastic Fair in Dusseldorf, West Germany, reaction injection moulding (RIM) was first shown to the public in the form of an all-plastic vehicle. It’s identical to injection moulding, except it uses thermosetting polymers, which need a coagulation process inside the molds.
RIM uses chemical reactions to create components that are stronger, harder, lighter, more complex, and customizable than conventional injection moulding.
The Process of Reaction Injection Molding
Polymer liquids (polyol and isocyanate) are kept in storage tanks and then distributed by high-pressure industrial pumps in the RIM process. In a continuous loop, the polymers are recirculated from the storage tanks to a multi-stream mix-head and back to the storage tanks.
Low-viscosity liquid polymers are used in the reaction injection moulding (RIM) process. Various chemical processes cause these polymers to grow and thicken. The polymers gradually solidify after being injected into the heated mould. Raw materials and moulding methods may be chosen and modified using the RIM design process to achieve the required weight, strength, density, and hardness properties. As a consequence, polyurethane components that are considerably lighter in weight and have more complex patterns than those made by traditional injection moulding are produced.
Types of Reaction Injection Molding
Depending on the polymers utilized, RIM may create a variety of physical characteristics. Solid, elastomeric, stiff foam, and flexible foam are some examples of these properties. When compared to conventional injection moulding, as well as techniques like vacuum forming and cast moulding, RIM has a higher flexibility in the types of components it can create.
RIM products may be improved even further by adding glass fibres to the liquid polymer, a process known as reinforced reaction injection moulding (RRIM). In a technique known as structural reaction injection moulding, components may be reinforced with a fibre mesh (SRIM). These two techniques may produce components that are even stronger and harder while maintaining the low weight and excellent aesthetics of all RIM-produced parts.
Reaction Injection Molding’s Benefits
Different wall thicknesses are considerably simpler to manufacture using response injection moulding, as opposed to the slow adjustments required with plastic injection moulding. Due to the reduced material viscosity, thinner walls and more intricate patterns may be created more readily. Furthermore, reaction injection moulding is often beneficial for producing extremely big components.
Reaction injection moulding materials are typically more appropriate for low, lightweight components than traditional plastic injection moulding components. As a result, reaction injection moulding is often utilised for big, robust, yet lightweight automotive and aerospace components.
Lower tooling costs
In contrast to high-grade tool steel, reaction injection moulding moulds may frequently be made from softer, therefore lower-cost metals like aluminium. Because the necessary heating is less severe and the temperature variation between heating and cooling is lesser. Since a result, reaction injection moulding is often an excellent option for low-volume or prototype manufacturing runs, as a tool steel mould is not needed. In addition, for very large volume runs, working out the arithmetic on reaction injection moulding tooling vs plastic injection moulding tooling may be helpful. The reason for this is that reduced tooling costs may help you in such situations as well.
Lower machine costs
In broad sense, reaction injection moulding is a much less “intensive” procedure than plastic injection moulding: the packing and holding stage is unlikely to be required; while using thermoset substances rather than thermoplastics, the mould clamping force is lower; and mould and machine temperatures are less extreme. As a result, whether you’re a moulding facility or an entrepreneur seeking to hire a manufacturing service provider, total expenses while utilising reaction injection moulding may be cheaper.
Reaction Injection Molding vs. Traditional Injection Molding
Although reaction injection moulding and injection moulding (IM) appear to be very alike, they are composed of two distinct processing methods: thermosetting and thermoplastic. Here’s a quick rundown of each technique.
Thermosetting Processing Method
Thermoset Processing Method is attributed to the formation of irreversible chemical bonds during the curing process, which is utilised in RIM. Once heated, thermosets do not melt; instead, they breakdown and do not reconstitute when cooled.
Thermoplastic Processing Method
Polymers that become pliable or moldable above a certain temperature and solidify upon cooling are used in the thermoplastic processing method.
Reaction Injection Molding Mold Prices
Reaction injection moulding may be considerably less expensive than you would think, particularly when compared to conventional injection moulding. Aluminum alloys, which are relatively simple to manufacture, are among the typical materials for RIM moulds.
When creating moulds, it’s critical to examine and compare the cost of the mould to the cost of production volume and post-processing costs, such as trimming, drilling, bonding, sanding, and painting. Molds for generally flat components with a little draw and no undercuts or additional surface treatments are usually the cheapest to make. Remember that more costly moulds may result in shorter total cycle durations and/or less post-molding work. Designers should keep this in mind while creating moulds.
Steel alloy moulds may also be utilised since they offer a high level of manufacturing dependability, which is ideal for mass-produced components. They may be equipped with sophisticated automated ejection systems and are less likely to be scratched or damaged than softer materials. They also have a considerably longer life cycle and are more dependable throughout the mold’s lifetime. Steel moulds, which are often used for automobile components with large production runs, endure longer but are more expensive. Steel moulds are often utilised for components composed of short-fiber-filled materials or composites because steel is abrasion resistant.
Reaction Injection Molding Materials
The most popular reaction injection moulding material is polyurethane. Polyureas, Polyesters, Polyphenols, Polyepoxides, and Polyamides are some of the more common materials (Nylon 6). Reinforcing materials such as glass fibres are combined with the injected material to make the final product stronger. Rigid foam automobile panels, for example, are often manufactured in this manner. Reaction injection moulding may range from flexible and soft to stiff and very hard, depending on how the components are mixed. It is possible to create a flexible/rigid foam core by using the blowing agent.